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Positive selection of a gene family during the emergence of ...

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By a kause · 1975 · cited by 337 — in humans, we identified a gene family (morpheus) within the ... informative sites for the phylogenetic tree of exon 2 are the result of amino-acid-altering.
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letters to nature514 NATURE | VOL 413 | 4 OCTOBER 2001 | www.nature.comcarriers. Avoidance learning, which was faster with the largeraggregation, required a strong signal, but the signal had no initialcost when the prey were gregarious. The signal increased detect-ability only slightly and detectability costs resulting from both thesignal and aggregation were counterbalanced by the dilution effect,by decreased per capita encounter probability and possibly byneophobia. Notably, the dilution effect increased the survival ofaggregated unpalatable prey even without a strong warning signal.Thus, unpalatability alone could select for grouping under theinØuence of individual selection, and in groups the evolution of astronger signal would be favoured by synergistic selection 6,16, whichaffects individuals of the same phenotype regardless of theirancestral relatedness. Alternative explanations for the initial evolu-tion of warning coloration have been proposed17 , such as randomdrift, neophobi...