Cardiology for dummies - biblio ugent

A prerequisite for correct diagnosis and for selection of further ... first heart sound is loudest over the apex beat area on the left side of the chest.
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CARDIOLOGY FOR DUMMIESProf. dr. Gunther van Loon, DVM, PhD, Dipl ECEIMDept. of Large Animal Internal Medicine, Fac. of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University,Salisburylaan 133, B-9820 Merelbeke, BelgiumAbstractKnowledge of cardiac anatomy and physiology is mandatory in order to understand normal cardiacfunction and cardiac disease. Although many similarities in cardiac anatomy and physiology exist withother species, a number of features are different in horses, such as the position of the heart in thethorax, high vagal tone and the ventricular depolarisation process. A thorough clinical exam is alwaysa prerequisite for correct diagnosis and for selection of further diagnostic tools.Keywords: cardiac function, physiology, auscultation, electrocardiography, clinical examAnatomyThe heart occupies a large portion of the cranial thorax and has an almost vertical position, wherebythe atria are positioned dorsally and the ventricles ventrally. Nomenclature is somewhat confusing asthe right hea...