APPENDIXSample selectionThe main source of data is the administrative records of the universe of all hospital discharges inChile collected by the Ministry of Health.A. Main SampleWe identify C-sections and vaginal births with ICD-10CM codes O820 to O829, and vaginalbirths with codes O800 to O819 and O830 to O839. We restrict the sample to singleton birthswithout complications during pregnancy and/or delivery, covered by either the public or privatehealth insurance, attaining an average of approximately 172,000 observations per year. We donot include births for which we do not know the mothers’ insurance, or those covered by thepolice and military health insurance. We categorize health care providers into public hospitalsand private hospitals using the Ministry of Health classification, and exclude from our sampleproviders that are exclusively linked to military forces and police, which account for 1.24% ofbirths. There are 155,424 births for which the information on type of insurance a...